communication is integral part of human evlution it is a link between ideas and action
it is the basis of all socio-economic, political and cultural activities
it has been found to be one of the most important skill required for success.
various methods are used for communication such as verbal, non-verbal, oral, written, body language, signs, symbols, charts and so on.
According to Keith Davis
“communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another”
According to W. H. Newman and C. F. Yummer
“communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
According to The American Management Association
“communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning.”
Process of Communication
communication is a two way process which takes place between sender and receiver, which consist of six elements
1. encoding – communications are done symbolically, when such symbols are accepted and agreed upon by people they become code.
languages are known as codes when message is sent using such codes it is known as encoding.
2. encoding medium – the medium of communication which is used for transfer of the encoded message is known as encoding medium.
e.g. phone, letters, SMS, E-mails etc
3. decoding – when the receivers receives the message and understands it is known as decoding
4. Feedback – after decoding the message the receivers gives a reply for which is known as feedback, feedback may be negative or possitive.
5. encoding medium – the recivers then selects a medium for communicating the reply to the sender.
6. decoding medium – as the sender receives the feedback he decodes it.
often there is direct contract between the encoder and decoder and feedback may be immediate. sometimes there is a need
for intervention of a third party, such as “publics” i.e. newspaper, trade association, chambers of commerce etc.